Applied Dynamics Technical Library

Digital Engineering for Process Manufacturing using ADEPT and MATLAB/Simulink Simscape

Introduction Applied Dynamics International (ADI) recently completed the Digital Twin and Open Automation for Process Manufacturing project. The primary objective of the project was to demonstrate viable proof-of-concept Digital Twin and Open Automation solutions for...

Using Modbus TCP with ADEPT

ADI’s ADEPT Framework now supports Modbus TCP for use in Real-Time Linux servers. Modbus TCP is a data communications protocol originally used with industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

EtherCAT Industrial Devices with ADEPT Real-Time Linux Servers

ADI’s ADEPT Framework now supports Ethernet for Control Automation, EtherCAT, for use in Real-Time Linux servers. EtherCAT is a fieldbus system suitable for both hard and soft real-time computing, making it a great choice for use in ADI’s ADEPT Framework and real-time...
Digital Engineering for Process Manufacturing using ADEPT and MATLAB/Simulink Simscape

Digital Engineering for Process Manufacturing using ADEPT and MATLAB/Simulink Simscape

Introduction Applied Dynamics International (ADI) recently completed the Digital Twin and Open Automation for Process Manufacturing ... read more

Using Modbus TCP with ADEPT

Using Modbus TCP with ADEPT

ADI’s ADEPT Framework now supports Modbus TCP for use in Real-Time Linux servers. Modbus TCP is a data communications protocol originally used with industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). read more

What Do Virtual V&V and Digital Twins Have in Common?

Modern aerospace systems have continued to grow increasingly complex, demanding an advanced approach in test and evaluation. This paper read more

EtherCAT Industrial Devices with ADEPT Real-Time Linux Servers

EtherCAT Industrial Devices with ADEPT Real-Time Linux Servers

ADI’s ADEPT Framework now supports Ethernet for Control Automation, EtherCAT, for use in Real-Time Linux servers. EtherCAT is a ... read more

Facilitating Efficient, Effective Remote V&V with ADEPT

Facilitating Efficient, Effective Remote V&V with ADEPT

The ADEPT Framework and its predecessors have been facilitating efficient and effective real-time verification and validation activities at global aerospace, defense, and industrial sites for decades. As remote work continues to grow in popularity and necessity, the ADEPT Framework and its associated cyber-physical systems are well equipped to meet the unique demands of verification and validation testing when developers and testers are on the other side of the campus, the country, or the world. read more

Introduction to ADEPT Enterprise Server

Introduction to ADEPT Enterprise Server

The ADEPT Enterprise Server (ADEPT-ES) is a utility that enhances cybersecurity, teamwork, and usability across the entire ADEPT environment. ADEPT-ES provides a unifying architecture, allowing unparalleled integration of the ADEPT Framework into your process. read more

Revision Control in the ADEPT Framework using Subversion (SVN)

Revision Control in the ADEPT Framework using Subversion (SVN)

The ADEPT Framework, ADI’s industrial data and control software platform, is constantly evolving to provide users with enhanced and integrated access to best-in-class, open-source tools in model-based systems engineering and software management. The ADEPT Framework now provides users with integrated access to Subversion (SVN), one of the most popular and capable revision control tools. read more

ADEPT & Simulink Integration

ADEPT & Simulink Integration

The ADEPT Framework, ADI’s industrial data and control software platform, has been designed from the ground up for seamless integration with many of the most powerful and advanced applications in model-based systems engineering. There is perhaps no tool in this realm that has become as ubiquitous as Simulink, by the MathWorks. read more

Open Process Automation Standard (O-PAS)

Open Process Automation Standard (O-PAS)

In late 2019, the Open Process Automation Standard (O-PAS) Version 1.0 was published by The Open Group to standardize distributed, virtual and real-time computation, for Industrial Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. Since then, O-PAS has become the prevailing standard for US industrial open automation and distributed computation. read more

Cyberphysical Aircraft Development and Test using Industrial Linux Servers

The value of cyberphysical product development within Integration, Verification, and Validation (IVV) is immense, with reduced cost for read more

A modern approach to managing complex multi-protocol network definitions throughout the product development lifecycle

Modern systems have grown increasingly dependent on data networks to share information between subsystems. Managing network definitions read more

Improving Collaboration for Cyber-Physical Product Development with FMI/FMU

Improving Collaboration for Cyber-Physical Product Development with FMI/FMU

Improved cyber-physical product development reduces technology integration costs, helps manage technology risk, and reduces cost over the entire software life-cycle. FMI technology can improve efficiency and reduce integration time of collaborative cyber-physical development and can better protect intellectual property shared in the collaboration. read more

Accessing PLC Data with Industrial Real-Time Linux Servers over EtherNet/IP

Accessing PLC Data with Industrial Real-Time Linux Servers over EtherNet/IP

Industrial data and control frameworks need to be able to utilize data from both servers and peripheral equipment, such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). To do so requires communication between devices, commonly done by communication standards such as, but not limited to, EtherNet/IP, CANopen, and Modbus. read more

ADEPT Brings Improved Cybersecurity Features

ADEPT Brings Improved Cybersecurity Features

It is a well-known maxim that security is a process rather than a product (or feature.) In this article we first discuss general process requirements for cybersecurity of industrial Linux deployments with ADEPT, and then we describe security-related features recently introduced to ADEPT to better support cybersecurity requirements. read more

Server Discovery – Simplifying Industrial Linux Server Configuration Management

Server Discovery – Simplifying Industrial Linux Server Configuration Management

Industrial computing and data handling capabilities often need to be flexible, reconfigurable, expandable and extensible to data APIs. ... read more

Cyber-physical Product Dev using Industrial Linux Servers – Aircraft Case Study

Cyber-physical Product Dev using Industrial Linux Servers – Aircraft Case Study

For most complex systems producers, cyberphysical product development is a portion of a sophisticated Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) product development strategy and set of processes. read more

Understanding the Real-Time Executive Daemon (rtxd) for Linux

Understanding the Real-Time Executive Daemon (rtxd) for Linux

The real-time executive daemon, or the “rtxd”, is a set of Linux processes and Linux process APIs providing a high-resolution computing time reference, a shared memory data management architecture, and a comprehensive set of computing services for real-time and accelerated industrial computing applications.  The rtxd transforms the standard Linux computing environment into a microsecond resolution, highly instrumented, distributed computing, client-server platform. read more

Industrial Real-Time Linux Servers

Industrial Real-Time Linux Servers

An Industrial real-time Linux server is a computer server, low-cost or very high-end, with a real-time Linux operating system installed and providing a set of services for time-deterministic, frequency-based, cyberphysical computing and data handling. This real-time Linux server is used to connect your industrial capability, e.g. test facility, manufacturing line, prototype system, into a Linux computing environment for the purpose of adding capability, e.g. machine learning, HIL simulation, live analytics, rapid prototype control, supervisory control, data acquisition. read more

From the Lab to the Skies Using an RF-Link

From the Lab to the Skies Using an RF-Link

One of the greatest benefits of the ADEPT Framework is the easy transition from virtual development and test to physical integration and verification. However, when your physical platform is mobile, such as a UAS, a solution is needed to extend your distributed framework from the laboratory to your mobile application. This article presents one solution to this challenge.  read more

Managing Multi-protocol Network Definitions for Industrial Data Applications

Managing Multi-protocol Network Definitions for Industrial Data Applications

Modern aircraft have grown increasingly dependent on data networks to share data between subsystems. As these networks grow in complexity, managing the network definitions throughout the development and test processes has become a critical and time consuming task. This paper will discuss the evolution and advancement of software tools that have been created to address this crucial task in aircraft simulation and test laboratories. read more

The rtxd Project: Open Source Real-time for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

The rtxd Project: Open Source Real-time for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

This whitepaper describes the fundamentals of the rtxd project and explains why it makes sense for ADI and others to invest their time and resources toward this effort. read more

Distributed Electrical Aerospace Propulsion – Future Aircraft Concept

Distributed Electrical Aerospace Propulsion – Future Aircraft Concept

The Distributed Electrical Aerospace Propulsion (DEAP) concept aircraft combines six electric engines for main propulsion, electrical storage, and a single gas turbine engine for electrical power generation. This technology development program, led by Rolls-Royce and Airbus, looks to the future of energy-optimized aircraft with a dramatic departure from the current aircraft design paradigm. read more

Development of a Real-Time Capable Integrated Aircraft Model

Flight simulation models are used throughout the aircraft industry including aircraft subsystem design; control system development; training simulation; cockpit display development; accident analysis; and within avionics integration labs and iron bird labs for production and development testing of devices and software.  Although aircraft companies usually develop and maintain their own aircraft model library there is demand for an externally-developed aircraft model library by companies developing aircraft subsystems and also by emerging market aerospace companies in the process of building their set of technology assets. read more

Aircraft IMA Integration Bench

Aircraft IMA Integration Bench

Managing the Challenges of Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) is forever changing commercial and ... read more

More Electric Aircraft Power Systems Facility

More Electric Aircraft Power Systems Facility

Developing Aircraft Power Systems of the Future Over the past decade, the aircraft industry has converged on a shared vision for the ... read more

The Expanded Reach of Simulation Based Aircraft System Verification and its Software Capability Requirements

The Expanded Reach of Simulation Based Aircraft System Verification and its Software Capability Requirements

The engineering and technology space surrounding Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has been growing in scope and importance for product development companies, for at least a couple decades. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) methodologies allow product companies to shorten development cycles, reduce cost, and refine the product offering to enable each successive version to be better, cheaper, faster. Matlab/Simulink has become the Microsoft Word of technical computing and the leading format for designing and simulating product behavior. read more

Predictor Methods in Real-Time Simulation

Predictor Methods in Real-Time Simulation

In real-time simulation it may sometimes be necessary to advance a data sequence {xn} by a given time interval in order to compensate for a delay of the same time interval which occurs somewhere else in the simulation. For example, it is well known that a D to A (digital-to-analog) converter that employs a zero-order hold introduces an effective delay equal to one-half the time step h associated with the data sequence driving the D to A converter. If left uncompensated, this can introduce a significant dynamic error in a closed-loop, real-time simulation. In this paper we present a number of formulas for calculating an estimated data sequence. read more

Improving the Accuracy of Intermediate-pass Outputs in Multi-pass Real-Time Integration Methods

Improving the Accuracy of Intermediate-pass Outputs in Multi-pass Real-Time Integration Methods

In this paper we introduce formulas which improve the accuracy of the intermediate output data points in multi-pass integration methods. This in turn permits the multi-pass methods to be utilized for real-time simulations with equal input and output data-point frame rates without compromising the dynamic accuracy of the simulation. read more

Simulation-centric processes for aerospace

Big aerospace and military applications represent the extreme end of embedded-systems complexity. Here’s how an embedded manager uses simulation and hardware-in-the-loop testing to break problems down to size. These guidelines can be used for any large project, or just projects that threaten to get out of hand. read more

Jet Engine HIL Simulation for Electronic Control System Testing

Successful jet engine development depends as much on the quality of the electronic engine control system as it does on engine design. Hardware-in-the-loop testing puts an engine control system through test scenarios identical to those carried out in engine test stand testing, with substantially lower cost, reduced risk, and less burden on human and mechanical resources. read more

Speeding Aircraft Development from Preliminary Design through Certification

Rapid advancements in avionics systems require moving from concept to certification as quickly and efficiently as possible. Simulation has proven to be invaluable in reducing development cycle times by enabling more efficient development work earlier in the design process. read more

RTOS versus GPOS: What is best for embedded development?

Do most embedded projects still need an RTOS? It is a good question, given the speed of today’s high-performance processors and the availability of real-time patches for Linux, Windows, and other General Purpose Operating Systems (GPOSs). read more

Real-time Simulation and Model-Based-Systems- Engineering using Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Computer Equipment

This paper presents the requirements development (including requirement creep), selection, and integration of a small commercial off the shelf (COTS) computer into existing simulation systems that are based on the Applied Dynamics ADvantage Framework. A comparison of the increased processing and modeling capability will be presented. Finally, changes in the existing process are shown with a discussion of modeling tradeoffs. read more

A momentum form of Kane’s equations for scleronomic systems

A momentum form of Kane’s equations for scleronomic systems

Kane’s dynamical equations are an efficient and widely used method for deriving the equations of motion for multibody systems. Despite their popularity, no publication has appeared which adapts them for use with port-based modelling tools such as bond graphs, linear graphs or port-Hamiltonian theory. In this paper, we present – for scleronomic systems – a momentum form of Kane’s equations, fully compatible with port-based modelling methods. read more

Dynamics of Real-Time Simulation

Dynamics of Real-Time Simulation

Computational methods in real-time simulation and control are in general not well understood by scientists and engineers, even when they have had extensive experience in non-real-time simulation. Without a deep understanding of the first principles nature of this technology the real-time engineer can fall into many traps. This book is made available to help anyone strengthen their knowledge of the dynamics of real-time and help us all develop better solutions as the world of complex systems becomes increasingly complex. read more