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Dynamics of Real Time

Computational methods in real-time simulation and control are in general not well understood by scientists and engineers, even when they have had extensive experience in non-real-time simulation.  In particular, many of the methods used to control dynamic errors and stability in traditional simulation are just not applicable in the real-time case.  A vast array of simulation and control tools and other technology have been developed over the past decades that help abstract the complexity of real-time.  However, without a deep understanding of the first principles nature of this technology the real-time engineer can fall into many traps.  This book is made available to help anyone strengthen their knowledge of the dynamics of real-time and help us all develop better solutions as the world of complex systems becomes increasingly complex.

Dynamics of Real Time
by Dr. Bob Howe, Applied Dynamics Founder

Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Z Transforms Applied to Real Time
Chapter 3 – Dynamic Errors for Fixed-step Integration Methods
Chapter 4 – Dynamics of Digital Extrapolation and Interpolation
Chapter 5 – Dynamics of Digital-to-analog and Analog-to-digital Conversion
Chapter 6 – Special Methods for Simulating Linear Systems
Chapter 7 – Modified Euler Integration
Chapter 8 – Multi-rate Integration
Chapter 9 – Variable-step Real-time Simulation
Chapter 10 – Asynchronous Real-time Multi-rate Simulation with Single and Multiple Processors
Chapter 11 – Real-time Simulation of State-variable Derivatives with Discontinuities

Missing chapters will be added from week to week.  Enjoy!